Sexual and Gender Identity-Based Microaggressions: Differences by Sexual and Gender Identity, and Sex Assigned at Birth Among Dutch Youth

Wouter Kiekens, Tessa Kaufman, Laura Baams

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Abstract

Research describes several sexual and gender identity-based microaggressions that sexual and gender minority (SGM) people might experience. We aimed to examine the occurrence of different sexual and gender identity-based microaggressions among SGM youth and to identify differences by sexual and gender identity, and sex assigned at birth. Open-ended questions about daily experiences were coded for 16 types of sexual and gender identity-based microaggressions in two daily diary studies among Dutch SGM youth (Study 1: N = 90, M age = 17.64 SD = 1.78; Study 2: N = 393, M age = 18.36 SD = 2.65). Several types of microaggressions were identified, and there was sizable variability in the reported frequency. Overall, lesbian women and bisexual youth were less likely to report microaggressions than gay youth. Bisexual youth were less likely to report use of heterosexist or transphobic terminology than gay youth and youth assigned male at birth were less likely to report invalidation of LGBTQ identity than youth assigned female at birth. Last, gender minority youth were more likely to report familial microaggressions, invalidation of LGBTQ identity, and threatening behaviors than cisgender youth. Overall, this study provides empirical support using mixed qualitative and quantitative methods for theorized typologies of microaggressions among Dutch SGM youth.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of interpersonal violence
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4-Dec-2021

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