Shorebirds are major, but thus far under-acknowledged, players in mudflat food webs and associated physio-chemical processes. Mud is a critical habitat type for shorebirds, offering a multi-dimensional matrix of feeding opportunities through space and time. Shorebirds have evolved a spectrum of foraging modes with associated morphologies, and sensory and physiological adaptations which exploit these foraging opportunities. Although shorebirds are mud specialists and sentinels of mudflat ecosystem functioning, they have not yet been well integrated into the “mud club”. In this chapter, we highlight the key roles shorebirds play in food webs, and in physical and chemical processes within mudflat ecosystems. We illustrate how shorebird distribution and behaviour provides a mirror of mudflat ecology because their foraging behaviour reflects the underlying ecological conditions, including temporal and spatial patterns in food/community structure in and across mud. In particular, shorebirds may be important indicators of essential fatty acid production by diatoms in epibenthic biofilm fields covering muddy intertidal flats, especially in estuaries. We conclude by highlighting the major challenges facing shorebirds today and call for a paradigm shift in shorebird conservation, based on recreating and restoring intertidal mud ecosystems.
|Name||Aquatic Ecology Series|