Similar long-term outcomes for venous, bovine pericardial, and polyester patches for primary carotid endarterectomy

David J Liesker*, Barzi Gareb, Bart T Köhlen, Simone J A Donners, Gert J de Borst, Clark J Zeebregts, Ben R Saleem

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: Currently, the type of patch used for carotid endarterectomy closure depends on the preference of the operating surgeon. Various materials are available, including autologous venous patches, bovine pericardial patches (BPP), and synthetic patches. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes.

METHODS: All patients who underwent primary carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty using a venous, bovine, or polyester patch between 2010 and 2020 at two high-volume medical centers were included in this retrospective analysis on largely prospectively collected data. Study endpoints included long-term ipsilateral transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular accident, restenosis, reintervention, and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the effect of patch type to each outcome.

RESULTS: In total, 1481 CEAs were performed with a follow-up of 32 (13-65) months. Venous patch was used in 309 patients (20.9%), BPP in 1000 patients (67.5%), and polyester patch in 172 patients (11.6%). A preoperative symptomatic carotid artery stenosis of >50% was observed in 91.9% (n = 284) of the patients who received a venous patch, 92.1% (n = 921) of the patients who received BPP, and 90.7% (n = 156) of the patients who received a polyester patch (p = 0.799). Only in selected patients with an asymptomatic stenosis of >70% surgery was considered. Multivariable analyses showed no significant differences between the three patch types regarding long-term outcomes after adjusting for confounders.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing primary carotid endarterectomy, the use of venous, bovine pericardial, or polyester patches seems equally safe and durable in terms of comparability in long-term outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)758-766
Number of pages9
JournalWorld Journal of Surgery
Issue number3
Early online date7-Feb-2024
Publication statusPublished - Mar-2024


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