Simplex and Multiplex Stratification in ASD and ADHD Families: A Promising Approach for Identifying Overlapping and Unique Underpinnings of ASD and ADHD?

Anoek M. Oerlemans*, Catharina A. Hartman, Yvette G. E. De Bruijn, Daphne J. Van Steijn, Barbara Franke, Jan K. Buitelaar, Nanda N. J. Rommelse

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorders, that frequently co-occur. This study examined whether stratification into single-incidence (SPX) and multi-incidence (MPX) is helpful in (a) parsing heterogeneity and (b) detecting overlapping and unique underpinnings of the disorders. ASD and ADHD traits were measured in 56 ASD/31 ADHD SPX families, 59 ASD/171 ADHD MPX families and 203 control families. In ASD but not ADHD, behavioral traits were less elevated in SPX than MPX unaffected relatives, suggesting that SPX-MPX stratification may thus help parse ASD, but not ADHD heterogeneity. Particularly unaffected relatives from MPX ASD/ADHD families displayed elevated trait levels of both disorders, indicating shared (multifactorial) underpinnings underlying ASD and ADHD in these families. Cross-disorder traits were highest in MPX ASD unaffected siblings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)645-657
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Volume45
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar-2015

Keywords

  • Autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Simplex-multiplex stratification
  • Family
  • Unaffected relative
  • ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
  • DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY-DISORDER
  • AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER
  • POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE
  • GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS
  • CRITERION VALIDITY
  • QUOTIENT AQ
  • RELIABILITY
  • PHENOTYPE
  • SYMPTOMS

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