SK-channel activation alters peripheral metabolic pathways in mice, but not lipopolysaccharide-induced fever or inflammation

Janne Bredehöft, Amalia M Dolga, Birgit Honrath, Sybille Wache, Sybille Mazurek, Carsten Culmsee, Regien G Schoemaker, Rüdiger Gerstberger, Joachim Roth, Christoph Rummel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Purpose: Previously, we have shown that CyPPA (cyclohexyl-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amine), a pharmacological small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK)-channel positive modulator, antagonizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine expression in microglial cells. Here, we aimed to test its therapeutic potential for brain-controlled sickness symptoms, brain inflammatory response during LPS-induced systemic inflammation, and peripheral metabolic pathways in mice.

Methods: Mice were pretreated with CyPPA (15 mg/kg IP) 24 hours before and simultaneously with LPS stimulation (2.5 mg/kg IP), and the sickness response was recorded by a telemetric system for 24 hours. A second cohort of mice were euthanized 2 hours after CyPPA or solvent treatment to assess underlying CyPPA-induced mechanisms. Brain, blood, and liver samples were analyzed for inflammatory mediators or nucleotide concentrations using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot, or HPLC. Moreover, we investigated CyPPA-induced changes of UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT)-explant cultures.

Results: CyPPA treatment did not affect LPS-induced fever, anorexia, adipsia, or expression profiles of inflammatory mediators in the hypothalamus or plasma or microglial reactivity to LPS (CD11b staining and CD68 mRNA expression). However, CyPPA alone induced a rise in core body temperature linked to heat production via altered metabolic pathways like reduced levels of adenosine, increased protein content, and increased UCP1 expression in BAT-explant cultures, but no alteration in ATP/ADP concentrations in the liver. CyPPA treatment was accompanied by altered pathways, including NFκB signaling, in the hypothalamus and cortex, while circulating cytokines remained unaltered.

Conclusion: Overall, while CyPPA has promise as a treatment strategy, in particular according to results from in vitro experiments, we did not reveal anti-inflammatory effects during severe LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Interestingly, we found that CyPPA alters metabolic pathways inducing short hyperthermia, most likely due to increased energy turnover in the liver and heat production in BAT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)509-531
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of inflammation research
Publication statusPublished - 23-Jan-2022

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