Skin autofluorescence as a measure of advanced glycation endproduct deposition: a novel risk marker in chronic kidney disease

Andries J. Smit*, Esther G. Gerrits

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose of review

Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a new method to noninvasively assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in a tissue with low turnover. Recent progress in the clinical application of SAF as a risk marker for diabetic nephropathy as well as cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic end-stage kidney disease, less advanced chronic kidney disease, and renal transplant recipients is reviewed.

Recent findings

Experimental studies highlight the fundamental role of the interaction of AGEs with the receptor for AGEs (RAGEs), also called the AGE-RAGE axis, in the pathogenesis of vascular and chronic kidney disease. SAF predicts (cardiovascular) mortality in renal failure and also chronic renal transplant dysfunction. Long-term follow-up results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and UK Prospective Diabetes Study suggest that AGE accumulation is a key carrier of metabolic memory and oxidative stress. Short-term intervention studies in diabetic nephropathy with thiamine, benfotiamine and angiotensin-receptor blockers aimed at reducing AGE formation have reported mixed results.

Summary

SAF is a noninvasive marker of AGE accumulation in a tissue with low turnover, and thereby of metabolic memory and oxidative stress. SAF independently predicts cardiovascular and renal risk in diabetes, as well as in chronic kidney disease. Further long-term studies are required to assess the potential benefits of interventions to reduce AGE accumulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-533
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Volume19
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov-2010

Keywords

  • advanced glycation endproducts
  • diabetes
  • skin autofluorescence
  • RENAL-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS
  • END-PRODUCTS
  • DIABETIC-NEPHROPATHY
  • HEMODIALYSIS-PATIENTS
  • PROTEIN GLYCATION
  • DIALYSIS PATIENTS
  • RAGE
  • ACCUMULATION
  • FLUORESCENCE
  • TYPE-1

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