Sleep quality, fatigue, societal participation, and health-related quality of life in kidney transplant recipients: a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Fatigue and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are common among kidney transplant recipients (KTR). We hypothesized that both may partially be attributable to poor sleep.

METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal data of KTR enrolled in the TransplantLines Biobank and Cohort Study were used. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. Individual strength (i.e. a composite of fatigue, concentration, motivation, and physical activity), societal participation and HRQoL were assessed using validated questionnaires.

RESULTS: We included 872 KTR (39% female, age 56 ± 13 y) and 335 healthy controls. In total, 33% of male KTR and 49% of female KTR reported poor sleep quality, which was higher compared to male and female healthy controls (19% and 28%, respectively, P < 0.001 for both). In logistic regression analyses, female sex, anxiety, active smoking, low protein intake, physically inactive lifestyle, low plasma magnesium concentration, using calcineurin inhibitors, not using mTOR inhibitors and using benzodiazepine agonists were associated with poor sleep quality. In adjusted linear regression analyses, poor sleep was strongly and independently associated with lower individual strength (st.β = 0.59, 95%CI 0.45 to 0.74, P < 0.001), poorer societal participation (frequency: st.β = -0.17, 95%CI -0.32 to -0.01, P = 0.04; restrictions: st.β = -0.36, 95%CI -0.51 to -0.21, P < 0.001; satisfaction: st.β = -0.44, 95% CI -0.59 to -0.28, P < 0.001), and lower HRQoL (physical: st.β = -0.53, 95%CI -0.68 to -0.38, P < 0.001; mental: st.β = -0.64, 95%CI -0.78 to -0.50, P < 0.001). The associations with poorer societal participation and lower HRQoL were strongly mediated by individual strength (P < 0.001 for all), yet the suggested direct effects of poor sleep quality on HRQoL remained significant (Pphysical = 0.03, Pmental = 0.002). Longitudinal data of 292 KTR showed that sleep quality improves after kidney transplantation in males (P < 0.001), but not in females (P = 0.9).

CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality is common among KTR, and may be a potential target to improve fatigue, societal participation, and HRQoL among KTR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-83
Number of pages10
JournalNephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
Volume39
Issue number1
Early online date7-Jul-2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan-2024

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