This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book traces the changing meanings of nature informing the aspirations for agricultural development and industrialization between 1930 and 1960. It focuses on the uncanny assemblages of humans and nonhumans in re-ordering the spatial arrangements of animal husbandry and industrial meat production against a backdrop of ethnic strife in the Kurdish provinces of southeastern Turkey. The book provides a detailed reading of the history of dams in Turkey over sediments and the relations between forest landscapes, the state’s interest in taming natures through technical intervention and natural resource rehabilitation projects in the coruh River Valley of northeastern Turkey. It examines first nationally debated environmental justice victories against coal-fired power plant investments in the Aegean region of western Turkey. The book presents the transforming ideas of nature in moving pictures with a focus on New Turkish Cinema.