Socioeconomic Health Inequalities in Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome and Depression: No Mediation by Parental Depression and Parenting Style

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
43 Downloads (Pure)


We assessed to what extent parental depression and parenting style mediate the relationships between different measures of parental socioeconomic status (SES) and both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents, and whether sex moderates these mechanisms. Data were from the prospective multigenerational Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study. Our sample consisted of 1217 adolescents with an average follow-up of 33.3 (SD = 7.33) months and a median baseline age of 13 (IQR:13-14) years. We used structural equation models to assess the direct and indirect effects of SES on baseline and changes at follow-up in both depression and MetS, and to assess moderation by sex. For each additional year of education, continuous MetS scores were 0.098 (95%CI: 0.020; 0.184) units lower at baseline and decreased 0.079 (95%CI: 0.004; 0.158) units at follow-up. No other direct or indirect effects of SES were found, and there was no moderation by sex. Additionally, warmer parenting style was generally associated with more favorable outcome scores. Therefore, improving parenting style may improve health for all adolescents. However, in this study parental depression and parenting style did not account for adolescent socioeconomic health inequalities. This may be partly due to good access to social services within the Netherlands.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7716
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 20-Jul-2021


  • health inequalities
  • adolescents
  • public health
  • epidemiology
  • cohort studies
  • socioeconomic status
  • metabolic syndrome
  • depression

Cite this