Background Physiological cardiac adaptation in athletes is influenced by body surface area, gender, age, training intensity and sport type. This study assesses the influence of sport category and provides a physiological reference for sport category and gender.
Methods Three hundred and eighty-one subjects (mean age 25 +/- 5 years, range 18 to 39 years; 61% men) underwent cardiac MRI and ECG: 114 healthy non-athletes (
Results Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV) index (ml/m(2)) for non-athletes/LD-HS/HD-LS/HD-HS, respectively, was 101/107/122/129 in men and 90/103/106/111 in women. LV end-diastolic mass (EDM) index (g/m(2)) for non-athletes/LD-HS/HD-LS/HD-HS was, respectively, 47/49/57/69 for men and 34/38/42/51 for women. Left or right ventricular EDV ratios were alike in all groups. LV EDV/EDM ratios were similar in nonathletes/ LD-HS/HD-LS athletes, and only lower in HD-HS athletes, disproving selective ventricular wall thickening in LD-HS athletes. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated HD-LS and HD-HS sport category coefficients (p
Conclusions This study demonstrates a balanced cardiac adaptation with preserved ratios of LV/right ventricular volume (in all sport categories) and LV volume/wall mass (in LD-HS and HD-LS sports). Sport category has a strong impact on cardiac adaptation. HD-HS sports show the largest changes, whereas LD-HS sports show dimensions similar to non-athletes.
- LEFT-VENTRICULAR MORPHOLOGY
- ATHLETES HEART
- UPPER LIMIT
- ELITE MALE