Stanowisko Watykanu wobec masonerii w XVIII w

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In the eighteenth century, after the modern Freemasonry had been established, almost all European countries, including Ecclesiastical State, decisively condemned Freemasonry, evaluating it as an illegal organisation. The author of the article shows that behind the hostile attitude of the Catholic Church towards Freemasonry in the eighteenth century stood, above all, political considerations. To this end he examines two most important papal bulls which were published in that time — In Eminenti Apostolatus Specula (1738) by Clement XII and Providas Romanorum by Benedict XIV (1752). Afterwards, the author shows that their content did not stand out against a background of the sharp criticism directed against masons by the authorities in Europe of that time. He eventually argues that the arguments of doctrinal provenance, expressed by the Church, were rather subordinate to the achievement of political aims.
Original languagePolish
Pages (from-to)63-75
Number of pages13
JournalSensus Historiae
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

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