Pore-forming toxins are used in a variety of biotechnological applications. Typically, individual membrane proteins are reconstituted in artificial lipid bilayers where they form water-filled nanoscale apertures (nanopores). When a voltage is applied, the ionic current passing through a nanopore can be used for example to sequence biopolymers, identify molecules, or to study chemical or enzymatic reactions at the single-molecule level. Here we present strategies for studying individual enzymes and measuring molecules, also in highly complex biological samples such as blood.
- Metabolomic analysis