Strategies for enzymological studies and measurements of biological molecules with the cytolysin A nanopore

Carsten Wloka*, Nicole S Galenkamp, Nieck J van der Heide, Florian L R Lucas, Giovanni Maglia*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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Pore-forming toxins are used in a variety of biotechnological applications. Typically, individual membrane proteins are reconstituted in artificial lipid bilayers where they form water-filled nanoscale apertures (nanopores). When a voltage is applied, the ionic current passing through a nanopore can be used for example to sequence biopolymers, identify molecules, or to study chemical or enzymatic reactions at the single-molecule level. Here we present strategies for studying individual enzymes and measuring molecules, also in highly complex biological samples such as blood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)567-585
Number of pages19
JournalMethods in Enzymology
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Nanopore
  • Single-molecule
  • Enzymology
  • Nanoscale
  • Sensor
  • Real-time
  • Protein
  • Metabolomic analysis
  • Blood

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