Several strategies, aimed at activating both innate and adaptive antitumor immunity, have been and are currently evaluated in clinical trials. In separate chapters of this book, these strategies are being reviewed and discussed. An alternative option is to (also) target intratumoral immune escape mechanisms in order to enhance intratumoral antitumor responses. Based on their overall target aim, these strategies can be divided into two main categories: Strategies that aim at enhancing intratumor homing of effector T cells and strategies to maintain the activity of these cells once they have reached the tumor site. Currently used therapeutic strategies that attempt to increase homing of effector T cells to tumors are local tumor irradiation, blockade of endothelin receptors, and taxane-based chemotherapy. Strategies that aim to enhance antitumor activity of intratumor effector T cells, either by overcoming tumor-induced tolerance or by overriding the immunosuppressive mechanisms imposed during tumor development, are depletion or functional inhibition of immunosuppressive populations, blockade of negative regulatory factors, and blockade of tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-induced signaling.
|Title of host publication||Cancer immunology|
|Subtitle of host publication||Bench to Bedside Immunotherapy of Cancer|
|Number of pages||22|
|Publication status||Published - 1-Jan-2015|