Stress effects on memory: An update and integration

Lars Schwabe*, Marian Joëls, Benno Roozendaal, Oliver T. Wolf, Melly S. Oitzl

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    413 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    It is well known that stressful experiences may affect learning and memory processes. Less clear is the exact nature of these stress effects on memory: both enhancing and impairing effects have been reported. These opposite effects may be explained if the different time courses of stress hormone, in particular catecholamine and glucocorticoid, actions are taken into account. Integrating two popular models, we argue here that rapid catecholamine and non-genomic glucocorticoid actions interact in the basolateral amygdala to shift the organism into a 'memory formation mode' that facilitates the consolidation of stressful experiences into long-term memory. The undisturbed consolidation of these experiences is then promoted by genomic glucocorticoid actions that induce a 'memory storage mode', which suppresses competing cognitive processes and thus reduces interference by unrelated material. Highlighting some current trends in the field, we further argue that stress affects learning and memory processes beyond the basolateral amygdala and hippocampus and that stress may pre-program subsequent memory performance when it is experienced during critical periods of brain development. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1740-1749
    Number of pages10
    JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
    Volume36
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Aug-2012

    Keywords

    • Stress
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Noradrenaline
    • Memory
    • Encoding
    • Consolidation
    • Retrieval
    • Multiple memory systems
    • LONG-TERM POTENTIATION
    • RESPONSE LEARNING-STRATEGIES
    • INDUCED NORADRENERGIC ACTIVATION
    • HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY
    • INDUCED CORTISOL ELEVATIONS
    • MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX
    • HEALTHY-YOUNG MEN
    • EARLY-LIFE STRESS
    • BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA
    • SPATIAL MEMORY

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