Sustainable Photopolymers in 3D Printing: A Review on Biobased, Biodegradable, and Recyclable Alternatives

Vincent S. D. Voet*, Jarno Guit, Katja Loos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

110 Citations (Scopus)
681 Downloads (Pure)


The global market for 3D printing materials has grown exponentially in the last decade. Today, photopolymers claim almost half of the material sales worldwide. The lack of sustainable resins, applicable in vat photopolymerization that can compete with commercial materials, however, limits the widespread adoption of this technology. The development of “green” alternatives is of great importance in order to reduce the environmental impact of additive manufacturing. This paper reviews the recent evolutions in the field of sustainable photopolymers for 3D printing. It highlights the synthesis and application of biobased resin components, such as photocurable monomers and oligomers, as well as reinforcing agents derived from natural resources. In addition, the design of biologically degradable and recyclable thermoset products in vat photopolymerization is discussed. Together, those strategies will promote the accurate and waste-free production of a new generation of 3D materials for a sustainable plastics economy in the near future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2000475
Number of pages11
JournalMacromolecular Rapid Communications
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb-2021


  • biobased polymers
  • degradable polymers
  • photopolymerization
  • reprocessable polymers
  • resins

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