Methods: We processed two LOFAR observations of the calibrator 3C 196: the first using the Low Band Antenna (LBA) system at 42-66 MHz and the second using the High Band Antenna (HBA) system at 115-189 MHz.
Results: We were able to isolate and correct for the effects of clock drift, polarisation misalignment, ionospheric delay, Faraday rotation, ionospheric scintillation, beam shape, and bandpass. The designed calibration strategy produced the deepest image to date at 54 MHz. The image has been used to confirm that the spectral energy distribution of the average radio source population tends to flatten at low frequencies.
Conclusions: We prove that LOFAR systematic effects can be described by a relatively small number of parameters. Furthermore, the identification of these parameters is fundamental to reducing the degrees of freedom when the calibration is carried out on fields that are not dominated by a strong calibrator.
- radio continuum: general
- techniques: interferometric
- Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics