Targeted therapy of underlying conditions improves quality of life in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation: results of the RACE 3 study

RACE 3 Investigators, Ruben R. De With, Michiet Rienstra, Marcelle D. Smit, Bob Weijs, Victor W. Zwartkruis, Anne H. Hobbelt, Marco Atings, Jan G. P. Tijssen, Johan Brugemann, Bastiaan Geelhoed, Hans L. Hillege, Raymond Tukkie, Martin E. Hemels, Robert G. Tieleman, Adetita Ranchor, Dirk J. Van Veldhuisen, Harry J. G. M. Crijns, Isabelle C. Van Gelder*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Aims Atrial fibrillation (AF) reduces quality of life (QoL). We aim to evaluate effects of targeted therapy of underlying conditions on QoL in patients with AF and heart failure (HF).

Methods and results The Routine versus Aggressive risk factor driven upstream rhythm Control for prevention of Early atrial fibrillation in heart failure (RACE 3) study randomized patients with early persistent AF and HF to targeted or conventional therapy. Both groups received guideline-driven treatment. The targeted group received four additional therapies: mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists; statins; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or receptor blockers; and cardiac rehabilitation including physical activity, dietary restrictions, and counselling. Quality of life was analysed in 230 patients at baseline and 1 year with available Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), University of Toronto AF Severity Scale (AFSS) questionnaires, and European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) class. Improvements in SF-36 subscales were larger in the targeted group for physical functioning (1219 vs. 622, P=0.007), physical role limitations (32 +/- 41 vs. 17 +/- 45, P=0.018), and general health (8 +/- 16 vs. 0 +/- 17, P

Conclusion A strategy aiming to treat underlying conditions improved QoL more compared with conventional therapy in patients with early persistent AF and HF. Its benefit was even observed in patients in AF at 1 year.

Trial registration number NCT00877643.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)563-571
Number of pages9
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr-2019


  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Quality of life
  • Risk factor
  • Targeted therapy
  • Randomized clinical trial

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