TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report

Fiona Stapleton*, Monica Alves, Vatinee Y. Bunya, Isabelle Jalbert, Kaevalin Lekhanont, Florence Malet, Kyung-Sun Na, Debra Schaumberg, Miki Uchino, Jelle Vehof, Eloy Viso, Susan Vitale, Lyndon Jones

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    482 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was undertaken. The prevalence of DED ranged from 5 to 50%. The prevalence of signs was higher and more variable than symptoms. There were limited prevalence studies in youth and in populations south of the equator. The meta-analysis confirmed that prevalence increases with age, however signs showed a greater increase per decade than symptoms. Women have a higher prevalence of DED than men, although differences become significant only with age. Risk factors were categorized as modifiable/nonmodifiable, and as consistent, probable or inconclusive. Asian ethnicity was a mostly consistent risk factor. The economic burden and impact of DED on vision, quality of life, work productivity, psychological and physical impact of pain, are considerable, particularly costs due to reduced work productivity. Questionnaires used to evaluate DED vary in their utility. Future research should establish the prevalence of disease of varying severity, the incidence in different populations and potential risk factors such as youth and digital device usage. Geospatial mapping might elucidate the impact of climate, environment and socioeconomic factors. Given the limited study of the natural history of treated and untreated DED, this remains an important area for future research.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)334-365
    Number of pages32
    JournalOcular Surface
    Volume15
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jul-2017

    Keywords

    • Dry eye disease
    • Incidence
    • Natural history
    • Prevalence
    • Quality of life
    • Questionnaire
    • Risk factor
    • Societal cost
    • DRY EYE DISEASE
    • QUALITY-OF-LIFE
    • MEIBOMIAN-GLAND DYSFUNCTION
    • PRIMARY SJOGRENS-SYNDROME
    • STEM-CELL TRANSPLANTATION
    • VERSUS-HOST-DISEASE
    • GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION
    • VISUAL FUNCTION QUESTIONNAIRE
    • IMMUNOGLOBULIN-LIKE RECEPTOR
    • VETERANS AFFAIRS POPULATION

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