The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma/Hemorrhage and Traumatic Brain Injury: Current State and Emerging Prospects

R. Namas*, A. Ghuma, L. Hermus, R. Zamora, D. O. Okonkwo, T. R. Billiar, Y. Vodovotz

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    63 Citations (Scopus)
    166 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherently detrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair, and regeneration. The inflammatory response is driven by cytokines and chemokines and is partially propagated by damaged tissue-derived products (Damage-associated Molecular Patterns; DAMP's). DAMPs perpetuate inflammation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but may also inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines. Various animal models of T/HS in mice, rats, pigs, dogs, and non-human primates have been utilized in an attempt to move from bench to bedside. Novel approaches, including those from the field of systems biology, may yield therapeutic breakthroughs in T/HS and TBI in the near future.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)97-103
    Number of pages7
    JournalLibyan journal of medicine
    Volume4
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

    Keywords

    • Trauma
    • Hemorrhagic Shock
    • Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Inflammation
    • Systems Biology
    • NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA
    • TRANSLATIONAL SYSTEMS BIOLOGY
    • REDUCED MATHEMATICAL-MODEL
    • ORGAN DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME
    • HEMORRHAGIC-SHOCK
    • IN-SILICO
    • CYTOKINE PRODUCTION
    • CLINICAL-TRIALS
    • NITRIC-OXIDE
    • CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID

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