The burden of mental disorders, substance use disorders and self-harm among young people in Europe, 1990–2019: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Giulio Castelpietra*, Ann Kristin Skrindo Knudsen, Emilie E. Agardh, Benedetta Armocida, Massimiliano Beghi, Kim Moesgaard Iburg, Giancarlo Logroscino, Rui Ma, Fabrizio Starace, Nicholas Steel, Giovanni Addolorato, Catalina Liliana Andrei, Tudorel Andrei, Jose L. Ayuso-Mateos, Maciej Banach, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Francesco Barone-Adesi, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Felix Carvalho, Márcia CarvalhoJoht Singh Chandan, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Rosa A.S. Couto, Natália Cruz-Martins, Paul I. Dargan, Keshab Deuba, Diana Dias da Silva, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe, Eduarda Fernandes, Pietro Ferrara, Florian Fischer, Peter Andras Gaal, Alessandro Gialluisi, Juanita A. Haagsma, Josep Maria Haro, M. Tasdik Hasan, Syed Shahzad Hasan, Sorin Hostiuc, Licia Iacoviello, Ivo Iavicoli, Elham Jamshidi, Jost B. Jonas, Tamas Joo, Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Joonas H. Kauppila, Moien A.B. Khan, Adnan Kisa, Sezer Kisa, Mika Kivimäki, Kamrun Nahar Koly, Ai Koyanagi, Manasi Kumar, Tea Lallukka, Berthold Langguth, Caterina Ledda, Paul H. Lee, Ilaria Lega, Christine Linehan, Joana A. Loureiro, Áurea M. Madureira-Carvalho, Jose Martinez-Raga, Manu Raj Mathur, John J. McGrath, Enkeleint A. Mechili, Alexios Fotios A. Mentis, Tomislav Mestrovic, Bartosz Miazgowski, Andreea Mirica, Antonio Mirijello, Babak Moazen, Shafiu Mohammed, Francesk Mulita, Gabriele Nagel, Ionut Negoi, Ruxandra Irina Negoi, Vincent Ebuka Nwatah, Alicia Padron-Monedero, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Shahina Pardhan, Maja Pasovic, Jay Patel, Ionela Roxana Petcu, Marina Pinheiro, Richard Charles G. Pollok, Maarten J. Postma, David Laith Rawaf, Salman Rawaf, Esperanza Romero-Rodríguez, Luca Ronfani, Dominic Sagoe, Francesco Sanmarchi, Michael P. Schaub, Nigussie Tadesse Sharew, Rahman Shiri, Farhad Shokraneh, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, João Pedro Silva, Renata Silva, Bogdan Socea, Miklós Szócska, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Marco Torrado, Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone, Tommi Juhani Vasankari, Massimiliano Veroux, Russell M. Viner, Andrea Werdecker, Andrea Sylvia Winkler, Simon I. Hay, Alize J. Ferrari, Mohsen Naghavi, Peter Allebeck, Lorenzo Monasta

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Background: Mental health is a public health issue for European young people, with great heterogeneity in resource allocation. Representative population-based studies are needed. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019 provides internationally comparable information on trends in the health status of populations and changes in the leading causes of disease burden over time.

Methods: Prevalence, incidence, Years Lived with Disability (YLDs) and Years of Life Lost (YLLs) from mental disorders (MDs), substance use disorders (SUDs) and self-harm were estimated for young people aged 10-24 years in 31 European countries. Rates per 100,000 population, percentage changes in 1990-2019, 95% Uncertainty Intervals (UIs), and correlations with Sociodemographic Index (SDI), were estimated.

Findings: In 2019, rates per 100,000 population were 16,983 (95% UI 12,823 – 21,630) for MDs, 3,891 (3,020 - 4,905) for SUDs, and 89·1 (63·8 - 123·1) for self-harm. In terms of disability, anxiety contributed to 647·3 (432–912·3) YLDs, while in terms of premature death, self-harm contributed to 319·6 (248·9–412·8) YLLs, per 100,000 population. Over the 30 years studied, YLDs increased in eating disorders (14·9%;9·4-20·1) and drug use disorders (16·9%;8·9-26·3), and decreased in idiopathic developmental intellectual disability (–29·1%;23·8-38·5). YLLs decreased in self-harm (–27·9%;38·3-18·7). Variations were found by sex, age-group and country. The burden of SUDs and self-harm was higher in countries with lower SDI, MDs were associated with SUDs.

Interpretation: Mental health conditions represent an important burden among young people living in Europe. National policies should strengthen mental health, with a specific focus on young people.

Funding: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Original languageEnglish
Article number100341
Number of pages18
JournalThe Lancet Regional Health - Europe
Volume16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May-2022

Keywords

  • Europe
  • Mental disorders
  • Mental health
  • Self-harm
  • Substance use
  • Young people

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