Heart failure (HF) with mid-range or preserved ejection fraction (HFmrEF; HFpEF) is a heterogeneous disorder that could benefit from strategies to identify subpopulations at increased risk. We tested the hypothesis that HFmrEF and HFpEF patients with myocardial scars detected with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) are at increased risk for all-cause mortality. Symptomatic HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 40%, who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging were included. The presence of myocardial LGE lesions was visually assessed. T1 mapping was performed to calculate extracellular volume (ECV). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations between clinical characteristics and LGE. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the association between LGE and all-cause mortality. A total of 110 consecutive patients were included (mean age 71 +/- 10 years, 49% women, median N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) 1259 pg/ml). LGE lesions were detected in 37 (34%) patients. Previous myocardial infarction and increased LV mass index were strong and independent predictors for the presence of LGE (odds ratio 6.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.07-19.31, p = 0.001 and 1.68 (1.03-2.73), p = 0.04, respectively). ECV was increased in patients with LGE lesions compared to those without (28.6 vs. 26.6%, p = 0.04). The presence of LGE lesions was associated with a fivefold increase in the incidence of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 5.3, CI 1.5-18.1, p = 0.009), independent of age, sex, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, NT-proBNP, LGE mass and LVEF. Myocardial scarring on CMR is associated with increased mortality in HF patients with LVEF > 40% and may aid in selecting a subpopulation at increased risk.
- Myocardial scar
- Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
- MYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS