Purpose: The amount of passive anterior tibial translation (ATT) is known to be correlated to the amount of posterior tibial slope (PTS) in both anterior cruciate ligament-deficient and reconstructed knees. Slope-altering osteotomies are advised when graft failure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction occurs in the presence of high PTS. This recommendation is based on studies neglecting the influence of muscle activation. On the other hand, if dynamic range of tibial rotation (rTR) is related to the amount of PTS, a"simple" anterior closing-wedge osteotomy might not be sufficient to control for tibial rotation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the amount of PTS and dynamic ATT and tibial rotation during high demanding activities, both before and after ACL reconstruction. We hypothesized that both ATT and rTR are strongly correlated to the amount of PTS.
Methods: Ten subjects were studied both within three months after ACL injury and one year after ACL reconstruction. Dynamic ATT and dynamic rTR were measured using a motion-capture system during level walking, during a single-leg hop for distance and during a side jump. Both medial and lateral PTS were measured on MRI. A difference between medial and lateral PTS was calculated and referred to as Delta PTS. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated for the correlation between medial PTS, lateral PTS and Delta PTS and ATT and between medial PTS, lateral PTS and Delta PTS and rTR.
Results: Little (if any) to weak correlations were found between medial, lateral and Delta PTS and dynamic ATT both before and after ACL reconstruction. On the other hand, a moderate-to-strong correlation was found between medial PTS, lateral PTS and Delta PTS and dynamic rTR one year after ACL reconstruction.
Conclusion: During high-demand tasks, dynamic ATT is not correlated to PTS. A compensation mechanism may be responsible for the difference between passive and dynamic ATT in terms of the correlation to PTS. A moderate-to-strong correlation between amount of PTS and rTR indicates that such a compensation mechanism may fall short in correcting for rTR. These findings warrant prudence in the use of a pure anterior closing wedge osteotomy in ACL reconstruction.
- Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
- ACL reconstruction
- Tibial rotation
- Anterior tibial translation
- Posterior tibial slope
- CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION
- KNEE INSTABILITY