Prevalence of gait impairments increases with age and is associated with mobility decline, fall risk and loss of independence. For geriatric patients, the risk of having gait disorders is even higher. Consequently, gait assessment in the clinics has become increasingly important. The purpose of the present study was to classify healthy young-middle aged, older adults and geriatric patients based on dynamic gait outcomes. Classification performance of three supervised machine learning methods was compared. From trunk 3D-accelerations of 239 subjects obtained during walking, 23 dynamic gait outcomes were calculated. Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) was applied for dimensionality reduction of the data for Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. Random Forest (RF) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were applied to the 23 gait outcomes without prior data reduction. Classification accuracy of SVM was 89%, RF accuracy was 73%, and ANN accuracy was 90%. Gait outcomes that significantly contributed to classification included: Root Mean Square (Anterior-Posterior, Vertical), Cross Entropy (Medio-Lateral, Vertical), Lyapunov Exponent (Vertical), step regularity (Vertical) and gait speed. ANN is preferable due to the automated data reduction and significant gait outcome identification. For clinicians, these gait outcomes could be used for diagnosing subjects with mobility disabilities, fall risk and to monitor interventions.
(This work was supported by Keep Control project, funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 721577.)