The development of crawling between 18 months and four years

B.C.L. Touwen*, M.S. Hempel, L.C. Westra

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    22 Citations (Scopus)


    Various quantitative and qualitative aspects of crawling were analysed in small groups of carefully selected normal toddlers of 1 1/2, two, 2 1/2, three, 3 1/2 and four years of age in a cross-sectional design. Between two and three years of age, major changes occurred in all observed aspects, resulting in differentiated, adaptive and efficient crawling. It is proposed that these changes are based on so-called adaptive variability, an age-related developmental process which seems to be a prerequisite for the development of cognition.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)410-416
    Number of pages7
    JournalDevelopmental Medicine and Child Neurology
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - May-1992


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