The Diagnostic Value of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Predict Delayed Cerebral Ischemia and Unfavorable Outcome After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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OBJECTIVE: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive tool to monitor cerebral regional oxygen saturation. Impairment of microvascular circulation with subsequent cerebral hypoxia during delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is associated with poor functional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, NIRS could be useful to predict the risk for DCI and functional outcome. However, only limited data is available on NIRS regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) distribution in SAH. The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of NIRS rSO2 values in non-traumatic SAH patients with the occurrence of DCI and functional outcome at two months. In addition, the predictive value of NIRS rSO2 was compared with the previously validated SAFIRE grade (derived from Size of the aneurysm, Age, FIsher grade, world federation of neurosurgical societies after REsuscitation).

METHODS: In this study, the rSO2 distribution of patient with and without DCI after SAH are compared. The optimal cutoff points to predict DCI and outcome are assessed, and its predictive value is compared to the SAFIRE grade.

RESULTS: Out of 41 patients, 12 developed DCI, and 9 had unfavorable outcome at 60 days. Prediction of DCI with NIRS had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77 (95%CI 0.62-0.92; p=0.0028) with an optimal cutoff point of 65% (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.45). Prediction of favorable outcome with NIRS had an AUC of 0.86 (95%CI 0.74-0.98; p=0.0003) with an optimal cutoff point of 63% (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.63). Regression analysis showed that NIRS rSO2 score is complementary to the SAFIRE grade.

CONCLUSION: NIRS rSO2 monitoring in patients with SAH may improve prediction of DCI and clinical outcome after SAH.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages21
JournalWorld neurosurgery
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 14-Jul-2023


  • Delayed cerebral ischemia
  • Functional outcome
  • Modified Rankin scale
  • Near-infrared spectroscopy
  • rSO
  • SAFIRE grade
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage

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