The Dutch Comparative Scale for Assessing Volunteer Motivations among Volunteers and Non-Volunteers: An Adaptation of the Volunteer Functions Inventory

Jacobien Niebuur*, Aart C. Liefbroer, Nardi Steverink, Nynke Smidt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Currently, no valid scales exist to compare volunteer motivations between volunteers and non-volunteers. We aimed to adapt the Dutch version of the Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI) in order to make it applicable for the comparison of volunteer motivations between Dutch older volunteers and non-volunteers. The Dutch version of the VFI was included in the Lifelines 'Daily Activities and Leisure Activities add on Study', which was distributed among participants aged 60 to 80. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were estimated for volunteers and non-volunteers separately, and subsequently a CFA model was created based on all observations irrespective of volunteer status. Finally, group-based CFA models were estimated to assess measurement invariance. The resulting measurement instrument (6 factors, 18 items), containing both a volunteer version and a non-volunteer version, indicated an acceptable model fit for the separate and the combined CFA models (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.95). Group-based models demonstrated strong invariance between the samples. The current study provides support for the validity of the Dutch Comparative Scale for Assessing Volunteer Motivations among Volunteers and Non-Volunteers, among Dutch older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5047
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 11-Dec-2019


  • volunteer motivations
  • Volunteer Functions Inventory
  • comparative scale
  • psychometric properties
  • measurement invariance
  • measurement instrument
  • older adults

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