The Dutch Technical-Tactical Tennis Test (D4T) for Talent Identification and Development: Psychometric Characteristics

Nikki Kolman, Barbara Huijgen*, Tamara Kramer, Marije Elferink-Gemser, Chris Visscher

*Corresponding author for this work

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This study examined the test-retest reliability, validity and feasibility of the newly developed Dutch Technical Tactical Tennis Test (D4T). This new test is relevant for talent identification and development in tennis. Thirty-two youth male tennis players (age 13.4 +/- 0.5) were classified as elite (n = 15) or sub-elite (n = 17) according to their position on the national youth ranking list under 15 years (cut-off rank 50) in the Netherlands. Games, rallies and different tactical situations (i.e. offensive, neutral and defensive) were simulated with a ball machine. Players had to return 72 balls to predetermined target areas. Stroke quality was recorded based on ball velocity and accuracy (VA index), as well as percentage errors. Test-retest reliability was assessed by comparing differences between the first and second test-session (n = 10). An intraclass-correlation coefficient of.78 for the VA-index was found (p <.05), indicating excellent test-retest reliability. Independent t-tests revealed that elite players outscored sub-elite players for the VA index, ball velocity, accuracy and percentage errors (p <.05), supporting good validity. Furthermore, a high correlation was found between the VA-index and individual positions on the youth ranking list (r =-.75; p <.001). The assessment of feasibility indicated that the D4T was applicable for instructors and coaches. In conclusion, the D4T was shown to be a reliable, valid and feasible test to measure technical-tactical characteristics of tennis performance in youth players.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-138
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of human kinetics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 30-Jan-2017


  • racquet sports
  • field test
  • performance
  • ball velocity
  • accuracy
  • youth sports
  • TASK

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