Islet transplantation into subcutaneous polymer scaffolds has shown to successfully induce normoglycemia in type 1 diabetes models. Vascularization of these scaffolds is imperative for optimal control of glucose levels. We studied the effect of the vascular stimulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the degree of vascularization of a scaffold and the role of the immune system in this process. Scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in immunocompetent C57BL/6 and immunocompromised nude mice. Mice received twice-daily intraperitoneal injections of the fast-releasing H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 25 or 50 μmol/kg) or saline for 28 days. After 63 days the vascular network was analyzed by histology and gene expression. Here we showed that the vascularization of a subcutaneous scaffold in nude mice was significantly impaired by H2S treatment. Both the CD31 gene and protein expression were reduced in these scaffolds compared to the saline-treated controls. In C57BL/6 mice, the opposite was found, the vascularization of the scaffold was significantly increased by H2S. The mRNA expression of the angiogenesis marker CD105 was significantly increased compared to the controls as well as the number of CD31 positive blood vessels. In conclusion, the immune system plays an important role in the H2S mediated effect on vascularization of subcutaneous scaffolds.