The effect of COVID-19 on transplant function and development of CLAD in lung transplant patients: A multicenter experience

Elizabeth Roosma, Johanna P van Gemert*, Auke E S de Zwart, Coretta C van Leer-Buter, Merel E Hellemons, Elize M Berg, Bart Luijk, Rogier A S Hoek, Diana A van Kessel, Onno W Akkerman, Huib A M Kerstjens, Erik A M Verschuuren, C Tji Gan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised on the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on lung transplant (LTx) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transplant function pre- and post-COVID-19 in LTx patients.

METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from LTx patients with confirmed COVID-19 from all 3 Dutch transplant centers, between February 2020 and September 2021. Spirometry results were collected pre-COVID-19, 3- and 6-months post infection.

RESULTS: Seventy-four LTx patients were included. Forty-two (57%) patients were admitted, 19 (26%) to the intensive care unit (ICU). The in-hospital mortality was 20%. Twelve out of 19 ICU patients died (63%), a further 3 died on general wards. Patients with available spirometry (78% at 3 months, 65% at 6 months) showed a significant decline in mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (ΔFEV1 138 ± 39 ml, p = 0.001), and forced vital capacity (FVC) (ΔFVC 233 ±74 ml, p = 0.000) 3 months post infection. Lung function improved slightly from 3 to 6 months after COVID-19 (ΔFEV1 24 ± 38 ml; ΔFVC 100 ± 46 ml), but remained significantly lower than pre-COVID-19 values (ΔFEV1 86 ml ± 36 ml, p = 0.021; ΔFVC 117 ± 35 ml, p = 0.012). FEV1/FVC was > 0.70.

CONCLUSIONS: In LTx patients COVID-19 results in high mortality in hospitalized patients. Lung function declined 3 months after infection and gradually improved at 6 months, but remained significantly lower compared to pre-COVID-19 values. The more significant decline in FVC than in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC > 70%, suggested a more restrictive pattern.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1237-1247
Number of pages11
JournalThe Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Volume41
Issue number9
Early online date19-Jun-2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep-2022

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