The effect of three-dimensional visualisation on performance in endoscopic sinus surgery: A clinical training study using surgical navigation for movement analysis in a randomised crossover design

Ellen ten Dam*, Herman M. Helder, Bernard F. A. M. van der Laan, Robert A. Feijen, Astrid G. W. Korsten-Meijer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
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Objectives: Endoscopic imaging techniques and endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) expertise have evolved rapidly. Only few studies have assessed the effect of three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy on endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The present study aimed to objectively and subjectively assess the additional value of 3D high-definition (HD) endoscopy in ESS. Design: A randomized crossover study of endoscopic surgery performance, using five ESS tasks of varying complexity, performed on Thiel embalmed human specimens. Setting: Simulated surgical environment. Participants: Thirty participants, inexperienced in ESS. Main outcome measures: Performance was assessed using video imaging, surgical navigation and questionnaires. Main outcome measures were as follows: efficiency (defined by time to task completion), distance covered inside the nose, average velocity towards target, accuracy (measured by error rate), and subjective assessment of endoscope characteristics. Results: During ESS tasks, both efficiency and accuracy did not differ significantly between 2D HD and 3D HD endoscopy. Subjectively, imaging characteristics of the 3D HD endoscope were rated significantly better. Conclusions: ESS performance of inexperienced participants was not significantly improved by the use of 3D HD endoscopy during ESS tasks, although imaging characteristics of the 3D HD endoscope were rated significantly better. Surgical field characteristics and surgical techniques are likely to influence any additional value of 3D HD endoscopy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-220
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Otolaryngology
Issue number2
Early online date17-Dec-2019
Publication statusPublished - 27-Jan-2020


  • anterior skull base
  • endoscopic sinus surgery
  • imaging
  • technology
  • undergraduate education

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