Evidence supports the notion that metabolic pathways are major regulators of organismal aging, and that metabolic perturbations can extend health- and lifespan. For this reason, dietary interventions and compounds perturbing metabolism are currently explored as anti-aging strategies. A common target for metabolic interventions delaying aging is cellular senescence, a state of stable growth arrest that is accompanied by various structural and functional changes including the activation of a pro-inflammatory secretome. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular and cellular events associated with carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, and define how macronutrients can regulate induction or prevention of cellular senescence. We discuss how various dietary interventions can achieve prevention of disease and extension of healthy longevity by partially modulating senescence-associated phenotypes. We also emphasize the importance of developing personalized nutritional interventions that take into account the current health and age status of the individual.