The efficacy of combining cognitive training and noninvasive brain stimulation: A transdiagnostic systematic review and meta-analysis

Anika Poppe*, Franziska D E Ritter, Leonie Bais, James E Pustejovsky, Marie-José van Tol, Branislava Ćurčić-Blake, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg, Lisette van der Meer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies investigated the innovative approach of supplementing cognitive training (CT) with noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) to increase the effects on outcomes. In this review, we aim to summarize the evidence for this treatment combination. We identified 72 published and unpublished studies (reporting 773 effect sizes), including 2,518 participants from healthy and clinical populations indexed in PubMed, MEDLINE, APA PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science, and (last search: August 9, 2022) that compared the effects of NIBS combined with CT on cognitive, symptoms, and everyday functioning to CT alone at postintervention and/or follow-up. We performed random-effects meta-analyses with robust variance estimation and assessed risk of bias with the Cochrane ROB tool. Only four studies had low risk of bias in all domains, and many studies lacked standard controls such as keeping the outcome assessor and trainer unaware of the treatment condition. Following sensitivity analyses, only learning/memory robustly improved significantly more when CT was combined with NIBS compared to CT only ( g = 0.18, 95% CI [0.07, 0.29]) at postintervention, but not in the long term. The effect was small and limited by substantial heterogeneity. The other seven cognitive outcome domains, symptoms, and everyday functioning did not benefit from adding NIBS to CT. Given the methodological limitation of prior studies, more high-quality trials that focus on the potential of combining NIBS and CT to enhance benefits in everyday functioning in the short and long term are needed to evaluate whether combining NIBS and CT is relevant for clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192–213
Number of pages22
JournalPsychological Bulletin
Issue number2
Early online date13-Nov-2023
Publication statusPublished - Feb-2024


Dive into the research topics of 'The efficacy of combining cognitive training and noninvasive brain stimulation: A transdiagnostic systematic review and meta-analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this