Individual vertebrates are able to detect spatial and temporal (causal) order in their environment and deal with this knowledge emotionally. It is argued that this latter aspect is connected with the flexible or reversible way vertebrates may interact with their environment. Because of this flexibility, uncertainty and changes therein can be experienced and shown by means of emotional expressions. It is this brain-behaviour organization that gives meaning to questions about welfare of individual vertebrates.
|Number of pages||6|
|Publication status||Published - Feb-1992|
- animal welfare