The emotional brain

P.R. Wiepkema*, J.M. Koolhaas

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    Individual vertebrates are able to detect spatial and temporal (causal) order in their environment and deal with this knowledge emotionally. It is argued that this latter aspect is connected with the flexible or reversible way vertebrates may interact with their environment. Because of this flexibility, uncertainty and changes therein can be experienced and shown by means of emotional expressions. It is this brain-behaviour organization that gives meaning to questions about welfare of individual vertebrates.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)13-18
    Number of pages6
    JournalAnimal Welfare
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Feb-1992


    • animal welfare
    • emotions
    • knowledge
    • vertebrates

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