The Flamingo Test: A new diagnostic instrument for dyslexia in Dutch higher education students

Liset Rouweler*, Nelleke Varkevisser, Marc Brysbaert, Bernardus Maassen, Wim Tops

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)
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    In this study, we present a new diagnostic test for dyslexia, called the Flamingo Test, inspired by the French Alouette Test. The purpose of the test is to measure students’ word decoding skills and reading fluency by means of a grammatically correct but meaningless text. Two experiments were run to test the predictive validity of the Flamingo Test. In the first experiment, we compared reading times, error rates and, sensitivity and specificity of the Flamingo Test for samples of students with and without dyslexia. In the second experiment, we compared performance on the Flamingo Test with reading performance on two Dutch standard word reading tests: the Leestest Een Minuut voor Studenten (LEMs; ‘one-minute word reading test for students’) and the Klepel, a one-minute pseudo-word reading test. Again, students with dyslexia and matched non-dyslexic students were included. Our results show that sensitivity and specificity, as well as the positive predictive value (PPV), of the Flamingo Test are high, with even slightly higher PPVs for the Flamingo Test than for LEMs and Klepel. Together with the fact that the test is short and easy to administer, we believe that the Flamingo Test is a valuable new diagnostic instrument to assess reading skills.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)529-543
    Number of pages15
    JournalEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
    Issue number4
    Early online date29-Dec-2019
    Publication statusPublished - 7-Aug-2020


    • Dyslexia
    • Higher Education
    • LEMs
    • Klepel
    • Text Reading

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