The ‘Flood Resilience Rose’: A management tool to promote transformation towards flood resilience

Leena Karrasch*, Britta Restemeyer, Thomas Klenke

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    13 Citations (Scopus)
    121 Downloads (Pure)


    Coping with the growing impacts of flooding in EU countries, a paradigm shift
    in flood management can be observed, moving from safety-based towards riskbased
    approaches and holistic perspectives. Flood resilience is a common
    denominator of most of the approaches. In this article, we present the ‘Flood
    Resilience Rose’ (FRR), a management tool to promote harmonised action
    towards flood resilience in European regions and beyond. The FRR is a result
    of a two-step process. First, based on scientific concepts as well as analysis of
    relevant policy documents, we identified three ‘levels of operation’. The first
    level refers to the EU Floods Directive and an extended multi-layer safety
    approach, comprising the four different layers of protection, prevention, preparedness
    and recovery, and related measures to be taken. This level is not
    independent but depends both on the institutional (second level) and the wider
    (third level) context. Second, we used surveys, semi-structured interviews and
    group discussions during workshops with experts from Belgium, Denmark,
    Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom to validate the definitions
    and the FRR's practical relevance. The presented FRR is thus the result of rigorous
    theoretical and practical consideration and provides a tool capable to
    strengthen flood risk management practice.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number12726
    Number of pages16
    JournalJournal of Flood Risk Management
    Issue number3
    Early online date16-May-2021
    Publication statusPublished - Sept-2021


    • flood defence measures
    • governance and institutions
    • integrated flood risk management
    • resilience


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