Objective To describe the prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-associated gene mutations, and other genetic characteristics in a national cohort of children with PAH from the Dutch National registry and to explore genotype-phenotype associations and outcomes.
Study design Children (n = 70) diagnosed with idiopathic PAH, heritable PAH, PAH associated with congenital heart disease with coincidental shunt (PAH-congenital heart disease group 3), PAH after closure of a cardiac shunt (PAH-congenital heart disease group 4), or PAH associated with other noncardiac conditions were enrolled. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed on PAH-associated genes (BMPR2, ACVRL1 , EIF2AK4, CAV1 , ENG, KCNK3, SMAD9, and TBX4). Also, children were tested for specific genetic disorders in case of clinical suspicion. Additionally, children were tested for copy number variations.
Results Nineteen children (27%) had a PAH-associated gene mutation/variant: BMPR2 n = 7, TBX4 n = 8, ACVRL1 n = 1, KCNK3 n = 1, and EIF2AK4 n = 2. Twelve children (17%) had a genetic disorder with an established association with PAH (including trisomy 21 and cobalamin C deficiency). In another 16 children (23%), genetic disorders without an established association with PAH were identified (including Noonan syndrome, Beals syndrome, and various copy number variations). Survival rates differed between groups and was most favorable in TBX4 variant carriers.
Conclusions Children with PAH show a high prevalence of genetic disorders, not restricted to established PAH-associated genes. Genetic architecture could play a role in risk-stratified care management in pediatric PAH.
- ACTA2 MUTATION