The gut wall is the largest immune organ and forms a barrier through which gut microbiota interact with the immune system in the rest of the body. Gut microbiota composition plays a role in the strength and timing of the anticancer immune response on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Surprisingly, the effects of gut wall characteristics, such as physical barrier integrity, permeability, and activity and composition of the intestinal immune system, on response to ICI has received little attention. Here, we provide an overview of markers to characterize the gut wall and interventions that can modulate these gut wall characteristics. Finally, we present a future perspective on how these gut wall markers and interventions might be utilized and studied to improve ICI treatment strategies.