Scope Human milk oligosaccharides (hMOs) can attenuate inflammation by modulating intestinal epithelial cells, but the mechanisms of action are not well-understood. Here, the effects of hMOs on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induced inflammatory events in gut epithelial cells are studied.
Methods and results The modulatory effects of 2'-fucosyllactose, 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL), 6'-sialyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), lactodifucotetraose (LDFT), and lacto-N-triaose (LNT2) on immature (FHs 74 Int) and adult (T84) intestinal epithelial cells with or without TNF-alpha are determined. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion in FHs 74 Int and T84 are quantified to determine hMO induced attenuation of inflammatory events by ELISA. 3-FL, LNnT, and LDFT significantly attenuate TNF-alpha induced inflammation in FHs 74 Int, while LNT2 induces IL-8 secretion in T84. In addition, microscale thermophoresis assays and ELISA are used to study the possible mechanisms of interaction between effective hMOs and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). 3-FL, LNnT, and LDFT exert TNFR1 ectodomain shedding while LNnT also shows binding affinity to TNFR1 with a Kd of 900 +/- 660 nM.
Conclusion The findings indicate that specific hMO types attenuate TNF-alpha induced inflammation in fetal gut epithelial cells through TNFR1 in a hMO structure-dependent fashion suggest possibilities to apply hMOs in management of TNF-alpha dependent diseases.
- human milk oligosaccharides
- intestinal epithelial cells
- tumor necrosis factor receptors
- tumor necrosis factor‐