The Influence of Target Size and Distance on the Production of Speech and Gesture in Multimodal Referring Expressions

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    In this paper we report on a production experiment for multimodal
    referring expressions. Subjects performed an object identification
    task in an interactive setting. 20 subjects participated and were
    asked if they could identify 30 countries on a world map on the wall.
    Subjects performed their tasks on two distances: close (10 subjects)
    and at a distance of 2.5 meters (10 subjects). The assumption is
    that these conditions yield precise and imprecise pointing gestures
    respectively. In addition we varied the ’size’ of target objects (large
    or isolated objects versus small objects). This study resulted in a
    corpus of 600 multimodal referring expressions. A statistical analysis
    (ANOVA) revealed a main effect of distance (subjects adapt their
    language to the kind of pointing gesture) and also a main effect of
    target (smaller objects are more difficult to describe than large or
    isolated objects).
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP'04)
    Place of PublicationJeju, Korea
    Publication statusPublished - 2004

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