This study examined the association between teacher-student and student-student relationships on societal involvement in Dutch primary and secondary schools. In addition, it studied differences in the effects of teacher-student relationships and student-student relationships among students from various parental backgrounds on societal involvement, indicating the possibilities of schools to reduce social inequalities between students. In two studies, multilevel Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses on the Cohort Onderzoek Onderwijs Loopbanen(5-18) data were used for students age 12 and age 15 to investigate the relative and lasting association between teacher-student and student-student relationships from primary to secondary school on societal involvement. In analysis A, 9,334 students from 1,036 classes were included in the analyses. In analysis B, 934 students from 667 classes were included. The results showed that teacher-student relationships are positively associated with societal involvement in both primary and secondary school. The association between teacher-student relationships and societal involvement in primary school were also important in secondary school. Moreover, positive teacher-student relationships were more beneficial for societal involvement for students with parents from lower educated backgrounds, indicating that schools can compensate for inequalities between students. Student-student relationships were found to be unrelated to societal involvement in both primary and secondary school.
- Teacher-student relationships
- student-student relationships
- civic knowledge
- societal involvement
- CIVIC ENGAGEMENT
- POLITICAL ENGAGEMENT
- CLASSROOM CLIMATE