The Landscape of Identity Model: An Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects of Identity Development

Mandy A. E. van der Gaag*, Naomi M. P. de Ruiter, Saskia E. Kunnen, Harke Bosma

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
165 Downloads (Pure)


The landscape of identity model views identity as a constellation of commitments with different levels of strength and integration, showing how this constellation emerges from everyday life experiences. Drawing on key principles from the complex dynamic systems approach, our model further describes this conceptualization, as well as the mechanisms underlying the development of an identity landscape. We show that the model solves current conceptual issues within identity theory, specifies how Marcia’s four identity statuses can be viewed as particular types of identity landscapes, and helps to further develop the identity field by generating predictions regarding how individuals with different types of identity landscapes would respond to major life events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)272-289
Number of pages18
JournalIdentity: An International Journal of Theory and Research
Issue number4
Early online date25-Oct-2020
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • attractors
  • commitments
  • complex dynamic systems
  • experiences
  • exploration
  • Identity
  • integration
  • landscape
  • Marcia

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