The Origin of Follicular Bile Acids in the Human Ovary

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Abstract

Bile acids (BAs) are present in ovarian follicular fluid (FF) and are linked to embryo development. However, information on the source of ovarian BA is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to explore local ovarian synthesis and BA transport from blood into FF. BA levels were determined in matching FF and serum from women undergoing in vitro fertilization. In vitro BA production by human mural granulosa cells (MGCs) and cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) was measured by mass spectrometry. Gene and protein expression were quantified in MGC and CGC and in human ovarian tissue by quantitative PCR and Western blot/immunohistochemistry, respectively. BA levels in blood and FF were significantly correlated (r(s) = 0.186, P = 0.027) but were almost twofold higher in FF (P <0.001). Primary BA levels were increased in FF, indicating that, in addition to passive diffusion, other sources of ovarian BA might exist. The key BA synthesis enzyme cytochrome P450 A1 was absent in MGC and CGC; BA production in vitro was undetectable. Therefore, local ovarian BA production is unlikely. However, common BA importers (Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter) and an exporter (ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 3) were identified in GC, theca cells, and oocyte. In summary, these results suggest that passive and active transport of BAs from blood into FF constitute sources of FF BA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2036-2045
Number of pages10
JournalThe American Journal of Pathology
Volume189
Issue number10
Early online date29-Jul-2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct-2019

Keywords

  • MINIMAL STIMULATION IVF
  • MODIFIED NATURAL CYCLE
  • EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT
  • GRANULOSA-CELLS
  • FLUID
  • IMPLANTATION
  • RECEPTOR
  • OOCYTES
  • MODEL
  • RATES

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