The right time to measure anti-Xa activity in critical illness: pharmacokinetics of therapeutic dose nadroparin

Jelmer G Sytema, Bert G Loef, Harriët M Loovers, Marijn Boer, Daniël J Touw, Marinus van Hulst*

*Corresponding author for this work

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BACKGROUND: Peak anti-Xa activity of low-molecular-weight heparin nadroparin is measured 3 to 5 hours after subcutaneous injection. In critically ill patients, physiological changes and medical therapies may result in peak activities before or after this interval, possibly impacting dosing.

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the percentage of critically ill patients with adequately estimated peak activities drawn 3 to 5 hours after subcutaneous administration of a therapeutic dose of nadroparin. Adequate was defined as a peak activity of ≥80% of the actual peak anti-Xa activity. If ≥80% of patients had adequately estimated peak activities in the 3- to 5-hour interval, measurement in this interval was regarded as acceptable. The secondary objective was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of nadroparin.

METHODS: In this single-center, prospective study, we evaluated anti-Xa activities in patients admitted to a general intensive care unit. After ≥4 equal doses of nadroparin, anti-Xa activity was measured according to a 12- to 24-hour sampling scheme.

RESULTS: In 25 patients, anti-Xa activities drawn between 3 and 5 hours after administration ranged 80% to 100% of the actual peak activity. Compared to the threshold level of an adequate estimation in at least 20 patients (≥80%), measuring anti-Xa activities in the 3- to 5-hour interval is an acceptable method (1-tailed binomial test; P < .02). We found a large interindividual variability for nadroparin exposure (mean ± SD area-under-the-curve 0-12h, 10.3 ± 4.8 IU·h/mL) and delayed elimination (t 1/2 range, 4.0-120.9 hours) despite adequate renal function.

CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients, measuring anti-Xa activity in a 3- to 5-hour interval after subcutaneous injection of therapeutic nadroparin is an acceptable method to estimate the actual peak anti-Xa activity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100185
Number of pages9
JournalResearch and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May-2023

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