The role of ADP-ribosylation and G(M1)-binding activity in the mucosal immunogenicity and adjuvanticity of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin

L de Haan, W Verweij, E Agsteribbe, J Wilschut*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The mucosal route of vaccination has attracted a great deal of attention recently. Not only is mucosal application of vaccines, for example, orally or intranasally, particularly convenient, it also offers the possibility to induce locally produced and secreted S-IgA antibodies in addition to systemic IgG antibodies. These IgA antibodies are known to play a key role in protection against pathogens that invade the host through mucosal surfaces. Induction of such responses is not readily achieved by currently used vaccination strategies, which generally involve intramuscular or subcutaneous injection with inactivated pathogens or antigens thereof. For the induction of a mucosal immune response, the vaccine needs to be applied locally. However, local vaccination with non-replicating antigens is usually ineffective and may result in tolerance unless a mucosal immunoadjuvant is included. The most potent mucosal immunoadjuvants known to date are probably cholera toxin (CT) and the closely related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT). Although CT and LT have become standard adjuvants for experimental mucosal vaccines, the intrinsic toxicity has thus far precluded their use as adjuvants for human vaccine formulations. In the present review, the mucosal immunogenic and adjuvant properties of LT and CT are described, with special emphasis on the functional role of the individual subunits on their immune-stimulatory properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)270-279
Number of pages10
JournalImmunology and Cell Biology
Volume76
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun-1998

Keywords

  • adjuvant
  • immunization
  • toxin
  • vaccine
  • NASAL INFLUENZA VACCINE
  • WHOLE-CELL VACCINE
  • B-SUBUNIT
  • ORAL IMMUNIZATION
  • CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE
  • IMMUNE-RESPONSES
  • RIBOSYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY
  • INTRANASAL IMMUNIZATION
  • ANTIBODY-RESPONSES
  • PROTEIN ANTIGEN

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