The Short-EMBU in Australia, Spain, and Venezuela: Factorial invariance, and associations with sex roles, self-esteem, and Eysenckian personality dimensions

WA Arrindell*, A Akkerman, N Bages, L Feldman, VE Caballo, TPS Oei, B Torres, G Canalda, J Castro, I Montgomery, M Davis, MG Calvo, JA Kenardy, DL Palenzuela, JC Richards, CC Leong, MA Simon, F Zaldivar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

The short(s)-EMBU (Swedish acronym for Egna Minnen Betraffande Uppfostran [My memories of upbringing]) consists of 23 items, is based on the early 81-item EMBU, and was developed out of the necessity of having a brief measure of perceived parental rearing practices when the clinical and/or research context does not adequately permit application of time-consuming test batteries. The s-EMBU comprises three subscales: Rejection., Emotional Warmth, and (Over)Protection. The factorial and/or construct validity and reliability of the s-EMBU were examined in samples comprising a total of 1950 students from Australia, Spain, and Venezuela. The data were presented for the three national groups separately. Findings confirmed the cross-national validity of the factorial structure underlying the s-EMBU. Rejection by fathers and mothers was consistently associated with high trait-neuroticism and low self-esteem in recipients of both sexes in each nation, as was high parental emotional warmth with high femininity (humility). The findings on factorial validity are in keeping with previous ones obtained in East Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy, and Sweden. The s-EMBU is again recommended for use in several different countries as. a reliable, functional equivalent to the original 81-item EMBU.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-66
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessment
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Keywords

  • parenting
  • EMBU
  • s-EMBU
  • cross-cultural comparison
  • factorial invariance
  • personality
  • sex roles
  • psychometrics
  • PARENTAL BONDING INSTRUMENT
  • CONVERGENT VALIDITY
  • DUTCH EXPERIENCES
  • REARING BEHAVIOR
  • QUESTIONNAIRE
  • COEFFICIENTS
  • SIMILARITY
  • COUNTRIES
  • STUDENTS
  • FORM

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