The transferability and validity of a population-level simulation model for the economic evaluation of interventions in diabetes: The MICADO model

Sajad Emamipour*, Eva Pagano, Daniela Di Cuonzo, Stefan R A Konings, Amber A van der Heijden, Petra Elders, Joline W J Beulens, Jose Leal, Talitha L Feenstra

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
18 Downloads (Pure)


Aims: Valid health economic models are essential to inform the adoption and reimbursement of therapies for diabetes mellitus. Often existing health economic models are applied in other countries and settings than those where they were developed. This practice requires assessing the transferability of a model developed from one setting to another. We evaluate the transferability of the MICADO model, developed for the Dutch 2007 setting, in two different settings using a range of adjustment steps. MICADO predicts micro- and macrovascular events at the population level.

Methods: MICADO simulation results were compared to observed events in an Italian 2000–2015 cohort (Casale Monferrato Survey [CMS]) and in a Dutch 2008–2019 (Hoorn Diabetes Care Center [DCS]) cohort after adjusting the demographic characteristics. Additional adjustments were performed to: (1) risk factors prevalence at baseline, (2) prevalence of complications, and (3) all-cause mortality risks by age and sex. Model validity was assessed by mean average percentage error (MAPE) of cumulative incidences over 10 years of follow-up, where lower values mean better accuracy.

Results: For mortality, MAPE was lower for CMS compared to DCS (0.38 vs. 0.70 following demographic adjustment) and adjustment step 3 improved it to 0.20 in CMS, whereas step 2 showed best results in DCS (0.65). MAPE for heart failure and stroke in DCS were 0.11 and 0.22, respectively, while for CMS was 0.42 and 0.41.

Conclusions: The transferability of the MICADO model varied by event and per cohort. Additional adjustments improved prediction of events for MICADO. To ensure a valid model in a new setting it is imperative to assess the impact of adjustments in terms of model accuracy, even when this involves the same country, but a new time period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)949-957
Number of pages9
JournalActa diabetologica
Issue number7
Early online date21-Apr-2022
Publication statusPublished - Jul-2022


  • Cohort Studies
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Risk Factors

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