The verb and noun test for peri-operative testing (VAN-POP): standardized language tests for navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and direct electrical stimulation

Ann-Katrin Ohlerth*, Antonio Valentin, Francesco Vergani, Keyoumars Ashkan, Roelien Bastiaanse

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    14 Citations (Scopus)
    132 Downloads (Pure)


    Background: Protocols for intraoperative language mapping with direct electrical stimulation (DES) often include various language tasks triggering both nouns and verbs in sentences. Such protocols are not readily available for navigated transcranial
    magnetic stimulation (nTMS), where only single word object naming is generally used. Here, we present the development,
    norming, and standardization of the verb and noun test for peri-operative testing (VAN-POP) that measures language skills more
    Methods: The VAN-POP tests noun and verb retrieval in sentence context. Items are marked and balanced for several linguistic
    factors known to influence word retrieval. The VAN-POP was administered in English, German, and Dutch under conditions that
    are used for nTMS and DES paradigms. For each language, 30 speakers were tested.
    Results: At least 50 items per task per language were named fluently and reached a high naming agreement.
    Conclusion: The protocol proved to be suitable for pre- and intraoperative language mapping with nTMS and DES
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)397-406
    Number of pages10
    JournalActa Neurochirurgica
    Issue number2
    Early online date10-Dec-2019
    Publication statusPublished - Feb-2020


    • nTMS
    • DES
    • language mapping
    • object naming
    • action naming
    • standardization

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