Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Anti-infective Drugs: Implementation Strategies for 3 Different Scenarios

Hannah Yejin Kim, Kenneth C Byashalira, Scott K Heysell, Anne-Grete Märtson, Stellah G Mpagama, Prakruti Rao, Marieke G G Sturkenboom, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) supports personalized treatment. For successful implementation, TDM must have a turnaround time suited to the clinical needs of patients and their health care settings. Here, the authors share their views of how a TDM strategy can be tailored to specific settings and patient groups.

METHODS: The authors selected distinct scenarios for TDM: high-risk, complex, and/or critically ill patient population; outpatients; and settings with limited laboratory resources. In addition to the TDM scenario approach, they explored potential issues with the legal framework governing dose escalation.

RESULTS: The most important issues identified in the different scenarios are that critically ill patients require rapid turnaround time, outpatients require an easy sampling procedure for the sample matrix and sample collection times, settings with limited laboratory resources necessitate setting-specific analytic techniques, and all scenarios warrant a legal framework to capture the use of escalated dosages, ideally with the use of trackable dosing software.

CONCLUSIONS: To benefit patients, TDM strategies need to be tailored to the intended population. Strategies can be adapted for rapid turnaround time for critically ill patients, convenient sampling for outpatients, and feasibility for those in settings with limited laboratory resources.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-10
Number of pages8
JournalTherapeutic Drug Monitoring
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1-Feb-2022

Cite this