Interleukin (IL)-11 was originally recognized as an immunomodulatory and hematopoiesis-inducing cytokine. However, although IL-11 is typically not found in healthy individuals, it is now becoming evident that IL-11 may play a role in diverse pulmonary conditions, including IPF, asthma, and lung cancer. Additionally, experimental strategies targeting IL-11, such as humanized antibodies, have recently been developed, revealing the therapeutic potential of IL-11. Thus, further insight into the underlying mechanisms of IL-11 in lung disease may lead to the ability to interfere with pathological conditions that have a clear need for disease-modifying treatments, such as IPF. In this review, we outline the effects, expression, signaling, and crosstalk of IL-11 and focus on its role in lung disease and its potential as a therapeutic target.