Tin fluid dynamics driven by laser-produced plasmas relevant to EUV nanolithography

Diko J. Hemminga*, Lucas Poirier, Javier Hernandez-Rueda, Bo Liu, Adam Lassise, Ronnie Hoekstra, John Sheil*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


State-of-the-art nanolithography machines employ extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light to pattern nanometer-scale features on silicon wafers for the production of integrated circuits. This radiation is generated in a laser-produced plasma formed on tin microdroplet targets. In this contribution, we give an overview of our recent experimental and theoretical studies on the properties of tin plasmas driven by short-wavelength lasers and the subsequent tin fluid dynamics. First, we will present a comprehensive characterization of the properties of laser-produced tin plasmas driven by lasers with wavelengths in the 1-10 µm range. Second, we present absolutely calibrated, charge-state-resolved measurements of the ion kinetic energy distribution recorded under multiple detection angles. Through extensive radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the plasma formation, growth and expansion, we demonstrate that a single-fluid approach accurately reproduces the angular dependence of the ion energy distribution. Moreover, we identify the origin of a high-energy peak in the distribution as a high-speed shell generated at early times in the expansion. Finally, we show that the time evolution of the droplet target morphology is entirely determined by the early-time plasma-driven pressure impulse on the droplet.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOptical and EUV Nanolithography XXXVI
EditorsAnna Lio
ISBN (Electronic)9781510660953
Publication statusPublished - 2023
EventOptical and EUV Nanolithography XXXVI 2023 - San Jose, United States
Duration: 27-Feb-20232-Mar-2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceOptical and EUV Nanolithography XXXVI 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose


  • conversion efficiency
  • droplet morphology
  • EUV
  • ion energy distribution
  • LPP
  • plasma expansion
  • radiation-hydrodynamics simulations
  • tin


Dive into the research topics of 'Tin fluid dynamics driven by laser-produced plasmas relevant to EUV nanolithography'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this